Thankfully, the governing bodies that oversee Michigan’s boating regulations and laws, understand that less is more.
Michigan canoe and kayak laws allow for non-motorized vessels to be exempt from registration. However, it is mandatory for all canoes and kayaks to have onboard a life jacket for each person and a loud sound-making device like a whistle.
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Michigan Canoeing/Kayaking Laws Overview
Governing Body – Michigan Department of Natural Resources is responsible for regulating boating laws in the state of Michigan.
Here is a link to more information on all the boating laws and regulations in Michigan
Canoe Registration – Unpowered (human-powered) boats are not required to be registered.
Title – You will NOT need to title your canoe or kayak in Michigan UNLESS your crazy canoe is over 20 feet long and has a permanently attached motor.
Canoe/Kayak License Requirements – If the craft is powered only by means other than an assisted device like a motor (ie. if it’s human-powered), no registration or licensing is required.
Canoe/Kayak Operator Requirements – No certification or special education is required to operate a non-powered canoe/kayak OR a powered canoe/kayak if the motor is smaller than 6 hp. This would include any electric motor of any power you may choose to mount onto your canoe.
Who needs a Michigan boating education certification? – If you are less than 12 years old and are operating a boat with a 6 – 35 hp motor, you will need a boating safety card on board with you at all times.
If you are operating a motor of greater than 6 hp and you were born after July 1, 1996, you’ll need a boater safety certification card.
Operating Under the Influence – No person is allowed to operate or be in physical control of a motorboat or vessel (we assume this includes canoes and kayaks) while under the influence of alcohol or drugs.
Anyone caught with a blood alcohol content of 0.08% or higher will be in violation of BUI (boating under the influence) laws.
Emergency Equipment Requirements – As in most jurisdictions, a wearable personal flotation device needs to be accessible to everyone in a vessel in the state of Michigan.
The minimum legal requirements for emergency equipment on your vessel (canoe/kayak) includes the following:
- Life jackets— U.S. Coast Guard-approved life jackets, of the right size and type, for everyone on board
- A white navigation light—during low visibility such as fog, heavy rain, night time, dawn or dusk. It must be visible from all angles (or at minimum, a “navigation” light deployable in sufficient time to prevent a collision)
- Visual Distress Signal – Not necessary in UNLESS you are on Federal waters after sunset and before sunrise.
- Sound Producing Device – Typically an emergency whistle capable of making a “loud” noise.
Do I Need a License or permit of any kind in order to canoe or kayak in Michigan?
While Michigan does require registering a motorized craft (battery-powered or liquid fuel-powered), it does not require non-powered kayaks or canoes to be registered.
Also, you won’t need registration or titling if you bring your canoe or kayak from another state (where it is operated legally with valid registration if required) and use it in Michigan for less than 60 days.
You may register and title your motorized canoe (if applicable) using THIS LINK.
Do I Need a Title for my Canoe or Kayak in Michigan?
There are no statutes in the Michigan boating laws that address the issue of titling a non-motorized vessel.
Do I Need a License or Registration in Michigan if my Canoe or Kayak has a Motor?
You’ll need to register your motorized canoe in Michigan. All motorized vessels with any kind of motor (gas or electric) and any level of power, will need to be registered (Certificate of Number) in Nebraska and also display the appropriate decals/numbers.
You’ll need to have your Certificate of Number available for inspection if asked by an enforcement officer.
Canoe/Kayak Operator Requirements for Motorized and Non-Motorized Vessels in Michigan
Do I have to be a certain age in Michigan to operate a canoe with an electric trolling motor?
The great news is that anyone in the state of Michigan can operate a motorized canoe or kayak as long as the motor is less than 6 hp. This would include any electric motors that you could consider mounting on your canoe or kayak.
That said, it’s never a bad idea to obtain your boater safety course for a safer boating experience.
Here’s where you can begin your State-approved Boater Safety Course.
Alcohol – Operating Under the Influence in the State of Michigan
Is it illegal to drink alcohol while paddling my canoe in Michigan?
It is illegal in Michigan to operate a boat while intoxicated. A boater is considered “intoxicated” if his/her blood alcohol content (BAC) is 0.08% or higher.
However, if a boater is impaired by any substance, including prescription drugs, marijuana, or other narcotics, they can still be charged with impaired boating if they fail to pass a field sobriety test or their actions give evidence of their intoxication.
Michigan Boating Emergency Equipment Requirements
Every state has a slightly different take on what is required or suggested regarding life jackets. I’m a pretty good swimmer, but it’s just become a habit now for me to wear a PFD at all times.
In my case, I’ll cheat a bit and take it off or open it for a while if it’s insanely hot and the water is calm, but as a rule, I’d say wear one all the time!
What are the required items I’ll need legally while canoeing/kayaking in Michigan?
You’ll need a number of items of gear for legal and safe travel on Michigan’s waterways.
Life Jacket – You will be required by law to have a readily accessible and wearable PFD (personal flotation device) for everyone on board your canoe/kayak. They need to be Type I, II or III (or a wearable V)
Throwable Flotation Devices – Not mandatory in canoes or kayaks.
Manual Bailing Device – Not officially mandatory, but it’s a VERY good idea to have one.
Visual Distress Signals (VDS) – Not required unless your vessel is in Federally-controlled waters.
If you are on Federally controlled waters after dark, your canoe/kayak will need to have a minimum of three night VDS’s (or day/night VDS’s like a flare or red meteor). You do not need to carry a daytime VDS if you are operating a human-powered canoe or kayak.
Note: The VDS requirement assumes you are on the water after dark.
Navigation Lights – Unpowered vessels require, at minimum, a bright white lantern with enough luminosity to prevent a collision. These lights are required only when the boat is anchored or moving anytime between sunset and sunrise.
Sound Devices – Officially, Michigan requires canoes and kayaks to have a loud sound-producing device audible for great distances. Loud human voices are not acceptable.
Fire Extinguishers – Not required in canoes/kayaks
Emergency Locator Beacons – Not required, but I’ve included this piece of equipment because I believe it is something EVERY canoeist and kayaker should have regardless of where they will paddle. ACR makes a very good model (pictured below).
ACR makes the best Emergency Locator Beacon … in my opinion!
Do Adults Have to Wear Life Jackets in a Canoe or Kayak in Michigan?
Canoes or kayaks of any size/length need to have aboard a Type I, II or III US Coast Guard-approved personal flotation device for each person on board.
Anyone under the age of 6 needs to be WEARING an approved PFD while in the vessel WHILE it is underway.
As usual, certain vessels are exempt from the PFD laws, including racing canoes and racing kayaks in addition to rowing skulls and other racing vessels powered by wind or paddles.
IMPORTANT: It’s worth a mention to note that the PFD must be in good condition (not full of rips/tears with broken straps, etc.) AND must be readily accessible, AND must be of the proper size for the intended user.
Emergency Sound Device (Michigan Boating Law)
According to Michigan boat laws, all boats within the state boundaries need to have a device that makes a very loud noise.
In Michigan, any powered or unpowered canoe or kayak MUST have a loud noise-making device that can produce a sustained blast for 4-6 seconds and can be heard for at least a half-mile. A loud human voice is not acceptable.
We regularly use the FOX 40 whistle that you can get HERE for around $10!
That said, if you’re feeling adventurous, there is a louder whistle that exceeds the typical 115 to 120 decibel level of the Fox 40 line of whistles. The Hyper-Whistle is a great alternative to the Fox 40 though it’s a few dollars more and a tiny bit bigger.
It offers a 2-mile range and can hit up to 142 decibels (dB). You can check it out on Amazon for only about $5 more than the Fox 40.
You may also choose to have an air horn or other device that does not require your lung power, but I find a whistle is more than adequate given its smaller size, lower price, and because it’s maintenance-free and never has to be replaced or recharged or “checked” unless it’s lost.
Canoe/Kayak Emergency Lighting (Michigan Boating Law)
Do I need special lights for my canoe in Michigan?
If you are operating an unpowered canoe or kayak, you’ll need to have AT LEAST a bright white lantern that produces a light that is visible from every angle and displayed in sufficient time to prevent a collision.
All craft (including canoes/kayaks) must display a white light visible from all angles if anchored anywhere OTHER THAN a designed mooring area.
The State of Michigan encourages users of kayaks and canoes (after dark) to display the bow red/green lights as well when underway. I’ve included a photo and link below to the best option (which is also the cheapest) for a canoe or kayak.
This is the best (and least expensive) option for a portable bow light that satisfies all state/provincial boating regulations.
This is definitely the light I would get if I didn’t already have an excellent light that I use for longer wilderness trips (smaller but not as impressive as this one)!
A stern mounted white light such as this one is exactly what is mandated for use if your canoe or kayak is (for some reason) moored away from shore overnight.
Here’s our choice for an excellent small, effective, and compliant stern light for dusk to dawn voyages.
Here’s a light very similar to the one I actually use in real life on my trips!
Visual Distress Signals (VDS) – Required only on Federally-controlled waters in the state.
Here’s the most convenient night VDS that is compliant with all states and provinces.
Michigan Canoe / Kayak Fire Extinguisher Law
Fire extinguishers are not required for canoes or kayaks for obvious reasons. If you should find yourself in a situation where a fire breaks out in your canoe, a simple splash of water (or barring that, a controlled capsize) should do the trick nicely.
Michigan Boating Rules and Certification Information
Michigan’s Boating Guide can be found HERE
Paddlesports Ideas and Locations for Michigan